Dense-thorned bitter apple

Solanum sisymbriifolium

A very spiny low shrub with many branches up to 1,5m high covered with sticky, glandular hairs and bright orange-red to brown-yellow spines up to 20mm long. It has an extensive root system. The leaves are dull green, hairy, deeply lobed and toothed and have prominent spines on the midrib and veins. White, cream or bluish flowers appear all year. The fruits are shiny green berries turning bright red. The unripe fruit is poisonous.


Devil's pumpkin

Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae)

A tendril climber reaching up to 6m high which is smooth to densely hairy. The stems become corky when older. It has deeply three-lobed leaves and the flowers have greenish-yellow sepals and no petals. Flowers appear from November to April followed by a  purple or black fruit. Poisonous stems, leaves and unripe fruit. It invades forests, woodlands, bush clumps, roadsides, river banks and coastal dunes.


Downy thorn apple

Datura stramonium (Solanaceae)

Erect annual shrub, grows up to 1,5m high with sparsely hairy to smooth, green, brown or purple stems. Leaves are dark green or purple on the upper surface and paler underneath the leaves, and are sparsely hairy and bad smelling. Solitary white, mauve or purplish funnel-shaped flowers appear from October to March followed by brown hardened fruit capsules covered with slender spines up to 10mm long. The seeds and parts of this plant are poisonous to livestock and humans. 


Dragon fruit

Hylocereus undatus

Dragon fruit is fast growing vine-like cactus, often growing in trees and other elevated structures. It is planted as a garden ornamental because of its large white flowers and edible fruit, but can become invasive.


Durban guava

Psidium X durbanensis (Myrtaceae)

Evergreen tree up to 10m high with hairy, slightly angular branchlets. Light green, thick leaves that are hairy below. White flowers in groups of 1-3 from October to December. Does not bear fruit. Invades : Roadsides, waste areas


Dutchman's pipe

Aristolochia elegans

Distinguished by climbing habitat; leaves with heart-shaped base, leaf stalk twisted and with a stipule like small leaf at the base; flowers showy, made up of large pipe - shaped, petal-like calyx fruit an oblong capsule, ending in a projection; seeds tear-drop shaped. 


Dwarf umbrella tree

Schefflera arboricola

The dwarf umbrella is an evergreen tree with dark green leaves that fan out into an umbrella form, which makes it ideal for use as a bonsai with a dense canopy. It is often used in forest plantings. The leaflets are arranged in a whorl around the leaf stem, giving the plant its common name. The number of leaflets increases as the plant ages.


Easter cassia

Senna pendula (Fabaceae)

A shrub or small tree growing up to 4m high with rounded, densely leafy crown and arching branches. Green leaves with yellow margins and leaflets in 4-5 pairs. Bright yellow flowers are prevalent throughout the year. It has brown pods that are straight to slightly curved.


Eglantine

Rosa rubiginosa

Compact, deciduous shrub up to 2m high with slightly arching branches that are thorny and hairy. Shiny, aromatic leaves that are green above and rusty-hairy beneath. Pink flowers varying to white in groups of three appear from October to December, followed by orange-red to scarlet fruits.


Elephant grass

Pennisetum purpureum

Elephant grass is a robust perennial grass widely naturalised in tropical and subtropical regions of the world.  It has low water and nutrient requirements and therefore can thrive in otherwise uncultivated lands. It is an aggressive grass that grows rapidly, colonising new areas and forming dense thickets. It grows in summer.