A long-lived (perennial) vine with stems often climbing up over other vegetation 6-10m tall, occasionally reaching 15m in height. It produces underground tubers and loses its leaves during the dry season in areas seasonal rains.
An upright or arching shrub (usually growing 3-5m tall) with many branching stems. Younger branches are reddish-brown with fine hairs; older branches become hairless and turn grey or dark brown. It is a significant environmental weed that forms thickets under tall trees, and dense infestations will shade the indigenous ground flora and impede the regeneration of overstorey plants.
Cotton- leaf physic nut
Deciduous or evergreen shrub to 2m high, main stem woody, exuting brownish latex. Leaves are reddish- brown or purplish- green, deeply 3-5 lobed, leaf margins and petioles glandular- hairy, 60- 100 x 80- 140 mm. Flowers are red, petals 4 x 2 mm in branching inflorescences to 115 mm long. Fruits are green turning brown, 3 lobed capsules, c. 10 mm long, splitting to release 3 light brown seeds c. 7 mm long.
Creeping inch plant
Creeping inch plant is an herbaceous species that has been widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. It has creeping stems that are much branched and produce roots at their joints. Leaves are densely clustered along the stems.
Crimson cestrum invades disturbed rainforest margins, moist and wet sclerophyll forests, urban bush land and creek banks. In these situations in takes over and displacesindigenous shrubs and smalltreesand restricts thehabitatof native wildlife.
Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae)
Perennial or shrub up to 2m high with hairy stems. Dark green, non-aromatic leaves 30-60mm wide. White flowers in terminal clusters from August to December. This plant is poisonous.
Dalmatian toadflax is a grassland invader indigenous to the Mediterranean region. It looks like a large, yellow snapdragon and has fast-growing, strong, horizontal roots. It can withstand cold, although most of the upper stems die back in winter and new stems emerge in spring. It is a problem on farms and grasslands in the interior of South Africa.
The delta arrowhead is an aquatic plant growing up to 150cm tall. It is green in colour, fast growing and can be placed in a variety of locations within an aquarium. The plant reproduces by means of stolons as well as seeds. Some leaves are totally submerged, others emergent (rising above the surface of the water). Submerged leaves have flattened petioles, but no true blades. Emergent leaves have ovate to elliptical blades.
Dense water weed
Egeria densa (Hydrocharitaceae)
A submerged aquatic plant with slender stems up to 3m long. Green, finely serrated leaves 15-30mm long in whorls of 4-5, sometimes 3-8. Yellow or cream flowers appear on long stalks about 20mm above the water surface. This aquatic plant invades still or slow-moving water in lakes and ponds.
Dense-thorned bitter apple
A very spiny low shrub with many branches up to 1,5m high covered with sticky, glandular hairs and bright orange-red to brown-yellow spines up to 20mm long. It has an extensive root system. The leaves are dull green, hairy, deeply lobed and toothed and have prominent spines on the midrib and veins. White, cream or bluish flowers appear all year. The fruits are shiny green berries turning bright red. The unripe fruit is poisonous.