Phytolacca dioica (Phytolaccaceae)

An impressively large, soft-wooded, semi-evergreen tree capable of growing 12-20m high, with a short, buttressed trunk and a hugely branched, rounded crown. The leaves and stems are succulent. It has bright green leaves about 70mm long which oval-shaped terminating in a gentle point with smooth margins. Creamy-yellow flowers appear in clusters about 100mm long with male and female flowers appearing on separate trees from September-December. This tree produces berry-like fruits which are initially green then turning black, almost resembling a mulberry. It invades savanna, fynbos, coastal bush, river banks, roadsides and urban open spaces.

Bent grass

Agrotis castellena Bois

Bent grass is grey-green, rather fine-leaved perennials, forming tufts 30-90 cm, with long slender rhizomes; branching intravaginal. Leaf-sheath glabrous, brownish green or purplish. Ligule 0.7-2 mm, or up to 3 mm in culm leaves, taller than wide, somewhat tapered or rounded, minutely ciliate. 

Bird of paradise flower

Caesalpinia gilliesii

Bird of paradise flower is a deciduous shrub that grows up to 5m tall depending on rainfall. Branchlets and inflorescence covered with velvety hairs and densely covered with blackish or brownish glands. It flowers in summer. 

Birdeye pearlwort

Sagina procumbens

Birdeye Pearlwort is a perennial mat-forming plant with narrow leaves and tiny white flowers. It can become a troublesome weed when allowed to spread and establish in turf. This weed can populate most soil conditions very quickly by seed. Pearlwort is a good indicator of moist/wet conditions and is often mistaken for moss in lawns. Swards that are maintained at low mowing heights below 6mm (golf and bowling greens) are susceptible to invasion from this weed.

Black cherry

Prunus serotina

Black cherryis a deciduous tree, growing up to 15-30 metres tall, with a trunk diameter of up to 70-120cm.A mature black cherry can easily be identified in a forest by its very broken, dark grey to black bark, which has the appearance of very thick, burnt cornflakes.

Black ironbark

Eucalyptus sideroxylon

The black ironbark, also known as the mugga or red ironbark, is a small to medium-sized, evergreen tree reaching 15-26m high. It has a moderately spreading crown and shallow roots that may outcompete adjacent plants. The bark is hard and deeply furrowed.

Black locust

Robinia pseudoacacia

A deciduous tree up to 12m high, exceptionally 25m, with an oval or rounded crown and bark that is dark brown and deeply furrowed. It suckers freely and often forms thickets. Young stems and branchlets have short spines. Small, bright green leaves above and paler beneath which become yellow in autumn. White, fragrant flowers in drooping sprays from September to November. Reddish-brown pods. The seeds, leaves and inner bark are poisonous seeds.

Black wattle

Acacia mearnsii (Fabaceae)

An evergreen tree growing 5-10m high, black wattle has dark olive-green finely hairy leaves. Pale yellow or cream spherical flowers in large fragrant sprays blooming from August to September. Fruits are dark brown, finely haired pods.
Black wattle has invaded grasslands, competing with and reducing indigenous species, and reducing grazing land for wild and domestic animals.

Bleeding heart tree

Homolanthus populifolius

The bleeding heart tree is a small bushy shrub or tree reaching 6m. The trunk is pale grey to brown and smooth. The flowers are yellow-green to red, small, in terminal spikes 60-100mm long. Fruit is a green, two-lobed capsule, up to 10mm long with a yellow, oily aril. The leaves are poisonous to cattle and it contains latex, which can cause skin irritations.


Rivina humilis

A perennial herb growing up to 1m high with spreading branches which are softly downy when young. It has light green, thin leaves which are oval in profile with smooth margins. White or greenish to rosy flowers appear from October to June and this plant produces bright red berries. The leaves, roots and fruit are poisonous.