Long-leaved wattle

Acacia longifolia

The long-leaved wattle is an evergreen shrub or spreading tree 2-6m high, with long bright green leaves that have prominent longitudinal veins. Flowers are bright yellow and cylindrical in shape, growing up to 50mm long and 7mm wide, from July to September. Originating from Australia and Tasmania, the long-leaved was cultivated in South Africa for dune reclamation, and has spread along the coastal areas, where it competes with and replaces invasive species.


Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae)

A medium-sized evergreen, rounded tree up to 8m high, with stout branches and rusty, woolly down on the branches. The dark green, leathery leaves are glossy above and woolly beneath with prominent veins. White flowers appear from May to June followed by orange-yellow, pear-shaped, fleshy fruits with a few large seeds. This tree invades forests and roadsides.

Madagascar periwinkle

Catharanthus roseus

It is an ever green shrub or herbaceous plant growing to 1m tall. The flowers are white to dark pink with a darker red centre. It is a listed NEMBA Category 1b species and invades riverbanks, waste places in dry savanna and also plantations. 

Madagascar rubber vine

Cryptostegia madagascariensis

Woody vine with milky sap, its stems are greyish-brown and have a whitish warty spots. The leaves are 2-11cm long and leathery, greenish in colour. Pink or purple tubular flowers (30-40mm long) with five petals. It produces pods, 50-90mm long which contains numerous seeds.

Madagascar sagewood

Buddleja madagascariensis

Is an evergreen shrub  with straggling or climbing branches usually growing 1.5-4 m tall, but occasionally reaching 10 m in height. The young branchlet are covered with densely matted whitish or yellowish hairs they are tomentose

Madeira vine

Anredera cordifolia

Madeira vine is a long-lived (perennial), twining or climbing plant growing over taller plants. The stems are hairless (glabrous) and grow in a twining fashion. Younger stems are green or reddish in colour and round in cross-section. They become rope-like in appearance and turn greyish-brown in colour as they mature. Distinctive greyish-brown or greenish-coloured warty tubers often form at the joints (nodes) along the older stems. These wart-like tubers are very characteristic.

Marram grass

Ammophila arenaria

Marram grass is a grass with large resembling membrane  structure (i.e. ligule), 10-30 mm long, where the leaf sheaths meet the leaf blades. Its seed-heads are relatively large (7-30 cm long) and its flower spikelets only have a single tiny flower (i.e. floret). These flowerspikelets do not have any obvious awns.It has been extensively planted as a sand binder on coastal sand dunes, but has spread from these plantings and is replacing native sand dune species.

Mauritian hemp

Furcraea foetida

Mauritius hemp is an evergreen perennial subshrub that is stemless or with a short stem up to 1m high. It has been widely cultivated as a succulent garden ornamental. The leaves are sword-shaped, 1-1.8m long and 10-15cm broad at their widest point, narrowing to 6-7cm broad at the leaf base, and to a sharp spine tip at the apex. The flowers are greenish to creamy white, 4cm long and strongly scented. They are produced on a large inflorescence up to 12m tall.

Mauritius thorn


A thorny evergreen shrub growing 2-4m high or climbs to 10 or higher with small bi-pinnate leaves which are dark green and paler underneath. The flowers are pale yellow in colour and appear as small tufted balls which flower from May-November

Mexican ageratum

Ageratum houstonianum (Asteraceae)

Green, purplish or reddish stems 30cm-1m high. It has bright green, soft, hairy, slightly aromatic leaves and fluffy mauve, blue, pinkish and white flowers appear all year around.