Cluster pine

Cluster pine

Pinus pinaster (Pinaceae)

Common Name:

Cluster pine

Scientific Name:

Pinus pinaster (Pinaceae)

Alternative common names:

Trosden (Afrikaans)


 A coniferous tree 8-15m high, conical when young, becoming cylindrical with a tall, bare trunk when older. Reddish-brown bark, deeply cracked into plates. Dull grey-green leaf needles in bundles of two. Cones initially purple, turning light brown 9-18cm long. This pine invades mountains and lowland fynbos

Additional Information

Where does this species come from?


What is its invasive status in South Africa?

CARA 2002 - Category 2 NEMBA - a. 2 for plantations and wind-rows. b. 1b elsewhere. c. National Heritage Trees or National Monument Trees in terms of the National Heritage Resources Act, 1999, (Act No. 25 of 1999), are not listed.

Where in South Africa is it a problem?

Western Cape

How does it spread?

Spreads by seed dispersal from the cones

Why is it a problem?

Competes with and replaces indigenous species. Dense stands can reduce water runoff and stream flow from mountain catchments, reduce grazing, and pose a fire hazard which threatens the survival of indigenous animal and plant species

What does it look like?

General description: Coniferous tree 8-15m high; conical when young, becoming cylindrical with a tall, bare trunk when older; bark reddish-brown, deeply cracked into plates.
Leaves: Needles, dull grey-green, in bundles of two, long (80-240 mm), thick and rigid.
Flowers: Does not produce any flowers.
Fruit/Seeds: Produces woody purple cones which turn light brown, 90-180mm long, shortly stalked, often clustered and persistent

Does the plant have any uses?

Used for timber

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