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German wasp | Vespula germanica

German wasp

Vespula germanica

Coral bush | Ardisia crenata

Coral bush

Ardisia crenata

Purple loosestrife | Lythrum salicaria

Purple loosestrife

Lythrum salicaria

Pom pom weed | Campuloclinium macrocephalum

Pom pom weed

Campuloclinium macrocephalum

Canarybird bush | Crotalaria agatiflora

Canarybird bush

Crotalaria agatiflora

Peanut butter cassia | Senna didymobotrya

Peanut butter cassia

Senna didymobotrya

Rubber vine | Cryptostegia grandiflora

Rubber vine

Cryptostegia grandiflora

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Environmental Programmes

In order to tackle our country’s socio-economic challenges, the government adopted the Outcomes based approach to improve government performance and providing focus on service delivery. find out more

Fallow deer

Dama dama

Common name:

Fallow deer

Scientific name:

Dama dama

Alternative common names:

Dama dama.

Like many species of deer, fallow deer are active throughout the 24-hour period, but in areas where human disturbance is high, they tend to be more active at night. They typically graze on grasses and rushes, but may also browse on young leaves  and berries. For most of the year, males and females occur in separate single-sex groups, and large herds of fallow deer can congregate in open areas where there is plenty of food.

Additional Info

  • Where does this species come from?


    What is its invasive status in South Africa?

    NEMBA Category 2.

    Where in South Africa is it a problem?

    Eastern Cape, Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal.

    How does it spread?

    They escape from their range and parks.

    Why is it a problem?

    They are a pest in agricultural lands and impact plant communities through browsing.

    What does it look like?

    Description: The male fallow deer is known as a buck, the female is a doe and the young is a fawn. Adult buck are 140–160cm long, have an 85–95cm shoulder height and typically weigh 60–100kg. Does are 130–150cm long, have a 75–85cm shoulder height and weigh 30–50kg. Larger buck can measure up to 190cm long and weigh 150kg. Fawns are born in spring and are about 30cm long and weigh around 4.5kg. Their coats range in colour from white or almost white, chestnut with white mottles and brown to sometimes even black (easily confused with sika deer). Habitat: This species inhabits mature deciduous and mixed woodland with dense undergrowth. Fallow deer also occur in marshes, meadows and mature conifer plantations. Breeding: The breeding season or 'rut' occurs between October and November. Males hold 'rutting stands' to defend groups of females. Rutting behaviour involves displaying, including groaning contests and parallel walks, escalating to physical contests in which the males lock antlers and push each other. One calf is usually produced during June or July.

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General News Updates

2019 National Symposium on Biological Invasio…


This is your invitation to South Africa's 2019 National Symposium on Biological Invasions. The convention is hosted by the Centre for Invasion Biology (CIB), University of Stellenbosch, and the Biolo... Read more

2019 Invasive Species Training


During the past five years (2014-2018), ISSA invasive species trainers have trained 4 000 in the identification of invasive species and laws pertaining to invasive species across South Africa.  ... Read more

Alien Grass Working Group


Who are we? The South African National Alien Grass Working Group was jointly initiated by the South African Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) and the Centre for Excellence in Invasion Biology (C·I·B) in... Read more

Permits for planting indigenous Cynodon?


On 16 February, 2018, South Africa's Department of Environmental Affairs issued amendments to the regulations and lists relating to the National List of Invasive Species.  Updates to the draft&n... Read more

Invasive species training 2018 dates released


Interested in invasive species?  How much do you know about NEMBA invasive species compliance for landowners and organs of state? The South African Green Industries Council (SAGIC) have released... Read more

Communications post for Africa advertised


The Nature Conservancy has advertised a brand new post:  Communications Manager, Africa Region. Knowledge of invasive species and water would be an asset in this post. See details below:    Job Titl... Read more