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German wasp | Vespula germanica

German wasp

Vespula germanica

Coral bush | Ardisia crenata

Coral bush

Ardisia crenata

Purple loosestrife | Lythrum salicaria

Purple loosestrife

Lythrum salicaria

Pom pom weed | Campuloclinium macrocephalum

Pom pom weed

Campuloclinium macrocephalum

Canarybird bush | Crotalaria agatiflora

Canarybird bush

Crotalaria agatiflora

Peanut butter cassia | Senna didymobotrya

Peanut butter cassia

Senna didymobotrya

Rubber vine | Cryptostegia grandiflora

Rubber vine

Cryptostegia grandiflora

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Environmental Programmes

In order to tackle our country’s socio-economic challenges, the government adopted the Outcomes based approach to improve government performance and providing focus on service delivery. find out more

Red deer

Cervus elaphus

Common name:

Red deer

Scientific name:

Cervus elaphus

Alternative common names:

Red deer, Bactrian wapiti, Bokharan deer, Bukhara red deer, elk, Bactrian deer, wapiti, Bactrian red deer.

The red deer is the fourth largest deer species behind moose, elk and samba deer. The males have large, usually six-pointed antlers that are shed annually. The antlers are usually shed between mid February and mid April, and new growth starts soon after the old scars have healed. 

Additional Info

  • Where does this species come from?


    What is its invasive status in South Africa?

    NEMBA Category 2.

    Where in South Africa is it a problem?

    Eastern Cape and Free State.

    How does it spread?

    They escape from their range and farms.

    Why is it a problem?

    They cause changes in vegetation structure and composition that influence plant richness and biodiversity and may result in damage to forest regeneration and productivity. They also damage agricultural crops.

    What does it look like?

    Description: Adult red deer are medium-sized with large, curved antlers, and a plain brown body that is lighter below. Mature males have antlers with 10 or more tines, the uppermost pointing upwards in a cluster. The muzzle is blackish and hairless, and the hooves are grey to black. Both sexes are similar in colour. Adults typically have no spots, while newborn fawns are brown or reddish-brown with a dark dorsal stripe and a creamy to light brown rump patch. White spots are scattered on the back and flanks. Females weigh 100-150kg and males weigh 200-300kg. Habitat: Red deer occupy a range of habitats including grassland, woodland and upland moors. Breeding: The average gestation period of red deer is about 249-262 days (8½ months). The main calving period extends from about the middle of May to the middle of June; the number of young is almost invariably one.

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General News Updates

2019 National Symposium on Biological Invasio…


This is your invitation to South Africa's 2019 National Symposium on Biological Invasions. The convention is hosted by the Centre for Invasion Biology (CIB), University of Stellenbosch, and the Biolo... Read more

2019 Invasive Species Training


During the past five years (2014-2018), ISSA invasive species trainers have trained 4 000 in the identification of invasive species and laws pertaining to invasive species across South Africa.  ... Read more

Alien Grass Working Group


Who are we? The South African National Alien Grass Working Group was jointly initiated by the South African Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) and the Centre for Excellence in Invasion Biology (C·I·B) in... Read more

Permits for planting indigenous Cynodon?


On 16 February, 2018, South Africa's Department of Environmental Affairs issued amendments to the regulations and lists relating to the National List of Invasive Species.  Updates to the draft&n... Read more

Invasive species training 2018 dates released


Interested in invasive species?  How much do you know about NEMBA invasive species compliance for landowners and organs of state? The South African Green Industries Council (SAGIC) have released... Read more

Communications post for Africa advertised


The Nature Conservancy has advertised a brand new post:  Communications Manager, Africa Region. Knowledge of invasive species and water would be an asset in this post. See details below:    Job Titl... Read more