Management of conflict invasive species in South Africa: Challenges and trade-offs

Management of conflict invasive species in South Africa: Challenges and trade-offs
Tsungai A. Zengeya1, Philip Ivey1, Darragh J. Woodford2, Olaf L.F. Weyl3, David M. Richardson4, Brian W. van Wilgen4
1South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria National Botanical Gardens
2Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, South Africa
3Centre for Invasion Biology & South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity (SAIAB), Private Bag 1015, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa
4Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa

South Africa has a long history of non-native species introductions and the primary reasons for these introductions include provision of food and raw materials, biocontrol, ornamental and recreational purposes. Of concern is that despite the considerable socio-economic benefits derived from some of the non-native species, they can also cause adverse ecological impacts in recipient areas.  As a result non-native species with a high societal value are now considered to be conflict species where there is a direct dissension between attaining biodiversity goals and human interests.  Yet, despite many cases of conflicts that have arisen, there has been no systematic review of the common principles/trends in conflicts across taxa. This paper proposes to systematically review cases of conflicts in invasive species management in South Africa and provide a conceptual framework to identify types of conflicts, ways in which conflict has been avoided, and where it has not.