The large thorn apple an erect annual growing up to 1,5m high with sparsely hairy to smooth, pale green stems. The large leaves have a jagged profile and are dark green above and paler below, and are sparsely hairy and bad smelling. Solitary white, funnel-shaped flowers appear in summer during October to March, followed by brown hardened fruit 

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A perennial, climber with thin stems growing up to 6m high. White or greenish-yellow flowers from March to April. Commonly known as the Lollipop climber, bearing green fruits with white blotched stripes, later turning red-orange colour- resembles a lollipop, hence the common name. Originally from Australia.

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Midnight lady is a perennial with spiny, fleshy-jointed stems. The stems are ribbed lengthwise with six ribs. The plant forms dense infestations that reduce pastures. Its spines cause injuries and lameness to stock.

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Spiny, succulent shrub 1-3m high with long, much-branched stems often arching downwards and rooting where they touch the ground. Spines in groups, with one or two central spines much longer than the others. No leaves. Showy white nocturnal flowers appear from November to January. Bright pinkish-red, succulent berries

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A climbing or scrambling shrub with deep pink to rose-red flowers. This shrub invades roadsides and watercourses and may out-compete indigenous plants. It prefers warmer climates and recorded from coastal bush and savanna.  

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