A sparsely branching, tussock-forming perennial grass with feathery, spike-like inflorescences. The bristles are long and detach with the spikelets. The leaves are up to 40cm long and are not rigid or ending with sharp points. Inflorescence is 10-25cm long and is usually purple or rose-coloured. This widespread grass invades roadsides and disturbed sites.

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Giant knotweed is an aggressive invader, similar to Japanese knotweed. It is a declared noxious weed in South Africa. It forms dense stands that exclude all other vegetation.

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A deciduous, spreading tree 15-20m tall. The trunk and branches have three-branched spines. Bright green bi-pinnate leaves consist of small paired lance-shaped and minutely toothed. Small, yellowish-green flowers appear from October to November. The seed capsules are flat and twisted brown pods.

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A tall evergreen tree growing up to 20-40m high with arching, slender branches. The leaves have minute scales and occur in whorls. The scales are uniformly pale with sharp ribs. This tree produces male flowers as yellowish spikes and female flowers as reddish heads from September to April, as well as small brown woody cones and winged seeds with a flattened profile

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Hyssop loosestrife is a mostly upright, branching annual or biennial herb growing 10-60cm tall. The oval leaves are up to 3cm in length. The inflorescence is a terminal spike with pinkish petals up to 5mm long.

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