An erect to sprawling thorny shrub growing up to 2m high with deeply ridged stems. Green, finely serrated leaves sometimes densely grey-downy beneath. White flowers with petals that are much longer than the sepals and appear from September to January. The edible fruits are red turning black.

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Apple of Peru is an annual shrub growing to 1m tall. It has spreading branches (the plant spreads to 1m wide) and the mid-green, toothed, wavy leaves are egg-shaped with the broad end at the base (ovate). The upward-facing flowers are most commonly pale blue and white, but there are also forms with violet or white flowers. The flowers are bell-shaped and 5cm or more across. Cherry-like, green-brown berries are encased within green or black mottled calyces. The mature fruits can resemble a lantern. The plant usually germinates in late spring or early summer. 

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The arsenic bush is a poisonous shrub that can grow up to 2-3m tall with yellow flowers. The leaves are arranged in pairs opposite each other, consisting of three or four pairs of ovate leaflets. The pods are cylindrical, 7-10cm long, containing shiny seeds. It is a common garden ornamental plant that also invades forest margins, savannah, riverbanks, roadsides, waste ground and plantations. It flowers from October to March.

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Rubus ellipticus is a stout evergreen shrub with prickly stem that grows approximately 4.5 metres tall. Its stems are covered with prickles and reddish hairs. It has been introduced to several places, including Hawaii, Southern USA and the UK, and is grown in cultivation for its edible fruits. This plant has become a major pest in Hawai'i, threatening its own native species of raspberry (Rubus hawaiiensis), and the ability of this plant to thrive in diverse habitat types makes it a particularly threatening invasive plant.

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Evergreen shrub or broadly conical tree up to 12m high. Dark green, shiny leavers tapering at both ends and usually wavy margins at the end of the branches. Fragrant white flowers in terminal clusters from August to September. Showy, orange turning brown capsules. 

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