The distribution of Atlantic salmon is temperature dependent. While they live in fresh water, they have blue and red spots. When they mature, they take on a silver-blue sheen. The easiest way of identifying the adults is by the black spots predominantly above the lateral line; the caudal fin is usually unspotted.
A special issue of the journal Bothalia (African Biodiversity and Conservation) has been released online. The issue has 19 papers which focus on the state of biological invasions in South Africa.
Go to the link: http://www.abcjournal.org/index.php/ABC/issue/view/113.
There are 19 papers and an editorial covering a wide range of issues. All are free to download (see below for links).
This special issue was part of eliciting contributions to the National Status Report on Biological Invasions in South Africa (due October 2017).
If you have any questions about the report itself please contact .
Papers on the state of biological invasions in South Africa
Wilson, J.R.U., Gaertner, M., Richardson, D.M. & van Wilgen, B.W., 2017, 'Contributions to the national status report on biological invasions in South Africa', Bothalia 47(2), a2207. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2207
Clusella-Trullas, S. & Garcia, R.A., 2017, 'Impacts of invasive plants on animal diversity in South Africa: A synthesis', Bothalia 47(2), a2166. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2166
Faulkner, K.T., Hurley, B.P., Robertson, M.P., Rouget, M. & Wilson, J.R.U., 2017, 'The balance of trade in alien species between South Africa and the rest of Africa', Bothalia 47(2), a2157. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2157
Foxcroft, L.C., van Wilgen, N.J., Baard, J. & Cole, N., 2017, 'Biological invasions in South African National Parks', Bothalia 47(2), a2158. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2158
Greve, M., Mathakutha, R., Steyn, C. & Chown, S.L., 2017, 'Terrestrial invasions on sub-Antarctic Marion and Prince Edward Islands', Bothalia 47(2), a2143. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2143
Henderson, L. & Wilson, J.R.U., 2017, ‘Changes in the composition and distribution of alien plants in South Africa: An update from the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA)', Bothalia 47(2), a2172. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2172
Hill, M.P. & Coetzee, J.A., 2017, 'The biological control of aquatic weeds in South Africa: Current status and future challenges', Bothalia 47(2), a2152. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2152
Irlich, U.M., Potgieter, L., Stafford, L. & Gaertner, M., 2017, 'Recommendations for municipalities to become compliant with National legislation on biological invasions', Bothalia 47(2), a2156. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2156
Kaplan, H., Wilson, J.R.U., Klein, H., Henderson, L., Zimmermann, H.G., Manyama, P. et al., 2017, 'A proposed national strategic framework for the management of Cactaceae in South Africa', Bothalia 47(2), a2149. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2149
Keller, R.P. & Kumschick, S., 2017, 'Promise and challenges of risk assessment as an approach for preventing the arrival of harmful alien species', Bothalia 47(2), a2136. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2136
Kraaij, T., Baard, J.A., Rikhotso, D.R., Cole, N.S. & van Wilgen, B.W., 2017, 'Assessing the efficiency of invasive alien plant management in a large fynbos protected area', Bothalia 47(2), a2105. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2105
Marr, S.M., Ellender, B.R., Woodford, D.J., Alexander, M.E., Wasserman, R.J., Ivey, P. et al., 2017, 'Evaluating invasion risk for freshwater fishes in South Africa', Bothalia 47(2), a2177. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2177
Measey, J., Davies, S., Vimercati, G., Rebelo, A., Schmidt, W. & Turner, A., 2017, 'Invasive amphibians in southern Africa: A review of invasion pathways', Bothalia 47(2), a2117. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2117
Picker, M.D. & Griffiths, C.L., 2017, 'Alien animals in South Africa - Composition, introduction history, origins and distribution patterns', Bothalia 47(2), a2147. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2147
Scholes, R.J., Schreiner, G. & Snyman-Van der Walt, L., 2017, 'Scientific assessments: Matching the process to the problem', Bothalia 47(2), a2144. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2144
Visser, V., Wilson, J.R.U., Canavan, K., Canavan, S., Fish, L., Le Maitre, D.C. et al., 2017, 'Grasses as invasive plants in South Africa revisited: Patterns, pathways and management', Bothalia 47(2), a2169. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2169
Wood, A.R., 2017, 'Fungi and invasions in South Africa', Bothalia 47(2), a2124. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2124
Woodford, D.J., Ivey, P., Jordaan, M.S., Kimberg, P.K., Zengeya, T. & Weyl, O.L.F., 2017, 'Optimising invasive fish management in the context of invasive species legislation in South Africa', Bothalia 47(2), a2138. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2138
Zachariades, C., Paterson, I.D., Strathie, L.W., Hill, M.P. & van Wilgen, B.W, 2017, 'Assessing the status of biological control as a management tool for suppression of invasive alien plants in South Africa', Bothalia 47(2), a2142. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2142
Zengeya, T., Ivey, P., Woodford, D.J., Weyl, O., Novoa, A., Shackleton, R. et al., 2017, 'Managing conflict-generating invasive species in South Africa: Challenges and trade-offs', Bothalia 47(2), a2160. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2160
The Florida bass is an olive green fish with a series of dark, sometimes black, blotches forming a jagged horizontal stripe along each flank. The upper jaw extends far beyond the rear margin of the eye. Adult largemouth bass are considered top predators in many habitats where they reside and rarely become prey due to their size, swimming speed and protective dorsal spines.
A video for education and awareness purposes has been released by CapeNature, focusing on the recovery of the lower Rondegat River in the Western Cape’s Cederberg region. This comes after the localised eradication of alien smallmouth bass from the river in 2012 and 2013.
The international literature on the invasiveness of trout is absolute and overwhelming. Brown trout and rainbow trout are highly invasive species outside of their natural distribution ranges and are listed amongst the world’s 100 Worst Invasive Alien Species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).)
Research conducted in South Africa has conclusively found that trout eat indigenous fish, amphibians and invertebrates. Trout live in self-sustaining populations in cool waters and they have to eat to stay alive. These eating habits have a devastating impact on biodiversity.
South Africa's National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA) seeks to protect biodiversity, and under South African law, if the spread of a species may result in environmental harm, the species is declared invasive.
The Alien and Invasive Species Regulations for NEMBA was published on 12 February 2014 and opened for public comment.