A perennial herb growing up to 1m high with spreading branches which are softly downy when young. It has light green, thin leaves which are oval in profile with smooth margins. White or greenish to rosy flowers appear from October to June and this plant produces bright red berries. The leaves, roots and fruit are poisonous.

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A glabrous, perennial, tendril climber with cylindrical or slightly angular stems, growing to 5m or higher. The leaves are usually deeply five- to seven-lobed and with sickle-shaped stipules. The flowers are about 10cm diameter with 5 sepals and petals that are similar in appearance. Produces yellow or orange, ovoid berries which are reddish inside. This plant invades forest margins, bush clumps, roadsides and river banks.

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A shrub or small tree up to 4m high covered with whitish-felty hairs. Dull green leaves that are velvety above and white-felty beneath which emit a strong smell when bruised. Purple flowers in compact, terminal clusters on densely felty stalks up to 10cm long all year round. Spherical berries which start off green and turn yellow, in compact terminal clusters. Hairy leaves and stems are a respiratory tract and skin irritant. Unripe fruits are poisonous.

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The Canada elderberry is a large flowering shrub with multiple stems. The upper surface of the leaflet is darker green and the underside is paler with fine white hairs on the veins. The creamy-white flowers are small and the fruit is a small berry-like drupe, which begins green, then turns reddish and eventually purplish-black. The roots, stems, leaves and bark are very toxic.

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This evergreen perennial can climb up to 10m high by means of rootlets on the stems, or it can spread over the ground to form a carpet. The leaves are green, sometimes with broad silvery-grey or white edges, and glossy when new, becoming leathery with age. The hairs on juvenile leaves are reddish. The flowers are green in terminal, globular umbels, but seldom appear. Fruits are drupes, which are black when ripe.

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